1Игор Пешевски,  2 Diarmad Campbell,  3Милорад Јовановски 


The Third Congress of Geologists of the Republic of Macedonia is taking place in Struga, organized by the Macedonian Geological Society and “Gocve Delchev” University of Shtip and supported by a number of companies and partners.

In the context of the long tradition of geological science and the current momentum, the key topics of the Congress relate to: Geology and science, Fundamental geology and Geology and economy.

Papers submitted to the Congress were compiled and printed in Collection presenting 105 original scientific works prepared by more than 350 authors and co-authors from Macedonia and abroad, on more than 700 pages. Their content reflects the connection between traditional research methods and application of new modern technologies and tools in geological explorations, including also the state of the art field and laboratory instrumental methods, systems for data processing and keeping, as well as environmental parameters monitoring.


the role of the subsurface in urban water management

De Beer, Johannes (2015), presentation on the role of the subsurface in urban water management at NORDIWA2015, Nordic Water and Sewage conference, November 6, 2015. Download presentation.

urban geology and subsurface data management

De Beer, Johannes (2015), presentation at seminar by International Association for Hydrogeologists on urban geology and subsurface data management, Oslo, Norway, October 8, 2015. Download presentation.

urban geology and water management

De Beer, Johannes (2015), presentation at Seminar on Water and Wood seminar in Bergen on urban geology and water management, Norway, October 7, 2015 Download presentation.

the relation between subsurface and surface water management

De Beer, Johannes (2016), presentation on the relation between subsurface and surface water management at Water Management Conference in Trondheim City Hall, February 14, 2016. Download presentation.


Hydrogeolog, seniorrådgiver Susie Mielby

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Urbangeologi; grunnleggende for bærekraftig byutvikling. (Urban geology - fundamental for a sustainable city development)

Ganerød, G.V., de Beer, J., Seither, A. & Vik, M.B. Urbangeologi; grunnleggende for bærekraftig byutvikling. (Urban geology - fundamental for a sustainable city development) Geoteknikkdagen 27. november 2015, Oslo, Norway Book of papers: http://nff.no/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Fjellsprengningsdagen-2015.pdf . Paper on page 468-472.

Launch of the new sub-surface 3D/4D model of the City of Odense, Denmark

Launch of the new sub-surface 3D/4D model of the City of Odense, Denmark, produced by public and private partnership, and inspired by COST Action TU1206 Sub-Urban, and led by Susie Mielby (GEUS) Gert Laursen (City of Odense, both COST partners and MC members, and Niels-Peter Jensen (COST Partner and Working Group Member). 5th October 2015 Download Article.

Hva’ kan der ske, når viden ikke inddrages?

Presentations by Susie Mielby (GEUS, Denmark) Gert Laursen (Odense City, Denmark, and a presentation on COST Sub-Urban Action by Vice Chair (Johannes de Beer, Norway) "Hva’ kan der ske, når viden ikke inddrages?" Download presentation.

Le Guern, C., Baudouin, V., Sauvaget, B., Delayre, M. & P. Conil (2016a) A typology of anthropogenic deposits as a tool for modelling urban subsoil geochemistry: example of the Ile de Nantes (France). Journal of Soil and Sediments. DOI 10.1007_s11368-016-1594-z


Urban soils may be contaminated not only by industrial activities but also by the materials contained in the anthropogenic deposits. In order to anticipate the management of excavated soils linked to urban redevelopment, their quality and quantities need to be assessed. Urban soils and subsoils contain nevertheless a large variety of anthropogenic deposits and present important geochemical heterogeneities. The paper aims to develop various geochemical types of made grounds relevant for a 3D urban subsurface model.

Materials and methods To build a 3D urban subsurface model, using geological tools, the challenge is to define a stratigraphic pile both geologically and geochemically relevant. In this frame, we defined a typology of made grounds based on an iterative approach. We used (a) published classifications, (b) a dataset of the study area (Ile de Nantes) comprising the borehole descriptions (2400), and (c) results of analyzed samples (more than 1800), gathered in a georeferenced database.

The layers (8400) found in the borehole descriptions were interpreted according to the a priori made grounds typology and to the underneath natural layers. The relevance of the made ground typology proposed was verified by a statistical approach on the representative samples and analyses selected in the database.

Results and discussion

Three types of made grounds have been retained. They show contrasted geochemistry. The made grounds that are comparable to natural subsoils correspond in the case study to alluvial type materials. They show similarity with a typology and geochemistry of alluvial materials. The questionable man-made grounds, containing potentially contaminated anthropogenic materials such as bottom ash or slag, are characterized statistically by higher contaminant levels than other types of made grounds (e.g., PAH, Zn, Pb, Cu,...). The various man-made grounds, corresponding to the remaining materials and containing for instance demolition materials, are characterized statistically by higher levels of PCBs. The typology has been used in a 3D representation of the Ile de Nantes subsoils, which served as a decision aid tool for the developer.


The knowledge on urban subsoil geochemistry may help defining redevelopment projects, by adapting soil use to subsoil quality. In this frame, the development of a geochemically relevant made ground typology taking into account their intrinsic potential of contamination appears useful. A proper description of the intrinsic components of the made grounds is essential. It is indispensable to use some rigorously defined and internationally agreed terms

Développement d’une méthodologie de gestion des terres excavées issues de l’aménagement de l’Ile de Nantes - Phase 1 : Caractérisation des sols et recensement des sources de pollution potentielles. Rapport final BRGM/RP-66013-FR // Development of a methodology to manage excavated soils generated by the redevelopment of Nantes Island – Phase 1: Characterisation of urban (sub)soils and inventory of potential contamination sources

Le Guern, C., Baudouin, V., Bridier, E., Cottineau, C., Delayre, M., Desse-Engrand, F., Grellier, M., Ménoury, A., Milano, E., Mouny, A., Pollett, S., Sauvaget, B., Bâlon, P. with the collaboration of Conil, P. and Rouvreau, L. , 2016b. BRGM Final Report RP-66013-FR (in French).


L’Ile de Nantes fait l’objet d’un programme de réaménagement ambitieux sur 30 ans (2000-2030). La Samoa , aménageur de l’Ile, souhaite pour la 2ème partie du programme d’aménagement être en mesure d’anticiper les problèmes liés aux pollutions des sols. Ces derniers peuvent être liés aux contaminations issues des anciennes activités industrielles, mais aussi à la qualité des remblais utilisés. Au-delà des enjeux sanitaires et environnementaux, ces problèmes de pollution représentent des enjeux économiques importants, notamment en lien avec la gestion des terres excavées. En l’absence de méthodologie pour acquérir la connaissance nécessaire pour anticiper ces questions de qualité géochimique des terrains concernés par les réaménagements, et notamment de méthodologie nationale de caractérisation des fonds géochimiques, la Samoa s’est rapprochée du BRGM pour développer des méthodologies adaptées, avec le soutien financier de l’Ademe.

Le projet a été conçu en 2 phases, la phase 1 présentée ici ayant pour objectifs :

  • - de localiser l’emprise des activités industrielles et de service et les sources de pollution potentiellement associées (IHU ), tout en tenant compte des études et des aménagements réalisés (diagnostics, dépollution, gestion des terres excavées sur site et hors site),
  • - de caractériser les sols et le proche sous-sol de l’Ile de Nantes (structure, nature et origine de matériaux, fond géochimique naturel ou anthropisé spécifique à l’Ile de Nantes),
  • - d’évaluer les volumes de terres à excaver potentiellement générées par les opérations d’aménagement à venir, compatibles avec le fond géochimique en vue de leur réutilisation, ou qui pourraient à défaut être admises en ISDIen l’absence de filière de valorisation, et de vérifier qu’elles répondent bien aux critères d’acceptation.

Les méthodologiques développées dans le cadre de l’IHU concernent en particulier la gestion spatio-temporelle des données et une identification des polluants potentiels associés à chacune des sources de pollutions potentielles recensées à l’échelle de la parcelle cadastrale. L’analyse des activités, produits et procédés et leur succession permet de proposer cinq niveaux de potentialité par polluant : nul à très faible, faible, moyen, fort, très fort. Les couches d’informations géoréférencées et les bases de données associées vont être intégrées au SIG de la collectivité et être consultables par les différents services et les aménageurs à partir de requêtes prédéfinies ou créées par l’opérateur. La base de données BASIAS, outil de communication vers les citoyens, a été en outre mise à jour. Sur l’Ile de Nantes, le nombre de site recensés est ainsi passé de 94 initialement à 199 au final.

Dans le cadre de la cartographie des remblais, un des challenges a été de définir une typologie de remblais ayant un sens géochimique et géologique permettant de les distinguer selon leur potentiel polluant intrinsèque. Pour ce faire, une démarche itérative a été mise en place. Elle s’appuie sur une synthèse bibliographique internationale, sur les données de sondages collectées et sur la vérification de la pertinence de la typologie par croisement avec des données de géochimie rassemblées dans une base de données géoréférencées. 3 types de remblais ont été définis. Ils présentent respectivement un potentiel de contamination intrinsèque fort, moyen ou faible selon la qualité des matériaux contenus (ex. scories, mâchefers, …). Cette typologie a été utilisée pour visualiser les différents types de remblais selon plusieurs modes de représentation (3D sous GDM, 2D sous ArcGis).

Un autre challenge a été d’évaluer la compatibilité des terres avec le fond géochimique. Dans ce cadre, une réflexion a été menée sur la notion même de fond géochimique anthropisé. En s’appuyant sur la notion d’anomalie de fond géochimique, la notion de seuil de compatibilité de fond géochimique est proposée. Les calculs statistiques par type de remblai et pour les alluvions, à partir des données d’analyses représentatives sélectionnées dans la base de données de géochimie, ont permis de définir des seuils de compatibilité avec le fond géochimique anthropisé local, spécifiques à l’ile de Nantes, pour la gestion des terres excavées dans ce secteur.

Les calculs de volumes en fonction des seuils de compatibilité de fond géochimique anthropisé montrent des perspectives de réutilisation intéressantes des terres : environ 300 000 m3 seraient réutilisables sans contrainte au niveau du CHU (0 et 4 m de profondeur), et environ 95 000 m3 seraient réutilisables après vérification et traitement éventuel. Des perspectives de réutilisation intéressantes s‘offrent en outre pour les sables des remblais hydrauliques massivement présents sur l’Ile (60 % des matériaux à 2 m de profondeur). L’intérêt d’une plateforme de gestion des terres excavées apparait ainsi clairement, celle-ci devant permettre de stocker les terres et de les traiter si besoin avant réutilisation.

Compte-tenu du volume important de terres à excaver, un excédent est attendu par rapport aux possibilités de valorisation. Une forte proportion de matériaux apparait acceptable en ISDI (environ 80 % sur l’emprise du CHU). Les dépassements de seuil apparaissent liés en majorité à des pollutions ponctuelles, et dans une moindre mesure à la qualité intrinsèque des remblais. Une question se pose néanmoins pour l’antimoine (Sb) qui est parfois le seul paramètre déclassant.

Les résultats opérationnels sont nombreux et présentent de forts enjeux économiques. Néanmoins certains verrous n’ont pu être levés dans le cadre du projet et méritent la poursuite des recherches.

Les éléments acquis au cours de cette première phase pourront être affinés en phase 2, notamment pour préciser les potentialités de réutilisation, mais aussi les seuils de réutilisation en fonction de différents types d’usages. Un autre volet envisagé en phase 2 est le dimensionnement de la plateforme et l’assistance pour sa mise en place.

Urban Groundwater Modeling Scenarios to Simulate Bucharest City Lake Disturbance

International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM: Surveying Geology & mining Ecology Management, Martie 2015, Bulgaria

Gogu R.C, Serpescu.I, Perju.S, Gaitanaru. D, Bica.I.

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"3D geological model to support the management of urban subsurface environment: Bucharest City case study"

8th European Congress on Regional Geoscientific Cartography and Information Systems (EUREGEO), Barcelona; 06/2015

Serpescu I, Gogu R.C, Boukhemacha M. A, Gaitanaru D.

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A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania

Hydrogeology Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 437-450, May 2015

Boukhemacha M A ,  Gogu C.R., Serpescu I,  Gaitanaru D, Bica I

External link to journal article.

DOI 10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3

Technical aspects in the development of a large geothermal borehole exchange infrastructure

Dragoș Găitănaru, Adrian Iurkiewicz, Cristina Iliescu, Radu Gogu

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"General aspects on urban hydrogeology and highlights from Bucharest (Romania)".

Boukhemacha MA, Gogu CR, Serpescu I, Gaitanaru D, Bica I


Boukhemacha MA, Gogu CR, Serpescu I, Gaitanaru D, Bica I. "General aspects on urban hydrogeology and highlights from Bucharest (Romania)". Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, vol.14, no 6, 1279-1285 pp, June 2015,  ISSN: 1582-959

Resilient cities and groundwater, Strategic Overview Series

International Association of Hydrogeologists, IAH 2015, COP-21 Megacities Conference Groundwater Session, Paris, December 2015

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Foster S, Tyson G, Howard K, Hirata R, Shivakoti BjJ,  Warner K, Gogu R, Nkhuwa D, Resilient cities and groundwater, Strategic Overview Series – International Association of Hydrogeologists, IAH 2015, COP-21 Megacities Conference Groundwater Session, Paris, December 2015

Urban groundwater modeling scenarios to simulate a Bucharest City lake disturbance

Constantin Radu Gogu, Mohamed Amine Boukhemacha, Sorin Perju, Dragos Gaitanaru, Irina Serpescu, Ana Balanica,  Ioan Bica

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Urban groundwater model of Bucharest city, Romania

43th IAH Congress, Montpellier, France, 25 – 29 September 2016

Gogu CR, Boukhemacha MA, Gaitanaru D, Serpescu I

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Gogu CR, Boukhemacha MA, Gaitanaru D, Serpescu I, Urban groundwater model of Bucharest city, Romania, 43th IAH Congress, Montpellier, France, 25 – 29 September 2016

"Urban and Geology"
the 5th National Symposium for the Geology of Istanbul on May 12-14, 2017

Aydın Üstün, Kocaeli Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Harita Mühendisliği Bölümü Umuttepe/İzmit, (aydin.ustun@kocaeli.edu.tr)


According to global demographics and geographical data, more than half of the world population live in cities spread over alluvial plains from river delta and lacustrine sediments. The predictions point out that urban population will rise to 60% in 2030 and 70% in 2050. In the World Bank urbanization statistics, Turkey has a growth rate of around 180% from 1950 to 2010, above the world average and the numbers still maintain the trend indicating that the average population of metropolitan area has increased by about 30%.

In the past century, urbanization has become one of the key drivers of sustainable development and economic growth. However, rapid urbanization resulting from migration and population growth comes out together with social, economic and structural problems that challenge the positive development of cities as well as the opportunities. Natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides and subsidence are recognized as geohazards in cities. Urbanization by both horizontal and vertical construction suppresses the earth surface on which it rests. The ground undergoes physical change by sinking slowly. This time-dependent and slow-developing progress (which may reach from mm level to dm level annually in vertical) is closely related to geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological soil classification type that affects more or less the decrease in topographic heights. Damages and threats caused by the land subsidence on infrastructure systems have been reported in numerous scientific researches. The results of such studies and risk assessments are of interest to the stakeholders of project management and planning in cities. Working groups of geological services, universities and research institutions, planners and decision makers should collaborate to assess the potential risks of land subsidence and to make urban development sustainable.

In this study, the results of land subsidence obtained from geodetic monitoring are presented in the central cities, İstanbul, Konya and Kocaeli together with the other samples in the literature. The importance of this data for urbanization is discussed, and finally general information on Sub-Urban COST activities is given.  

Keywords: Population growth, urbanization, geohazard, land subsidence, geotechnical data management

Three articles produced by people in the Sub-Urban group are published in the Spanish journal 'Ciudad y Territorio'; vol. 186, see abstracts below. All abstracts from the journal are available online here, and the entire volume is available here.

The Subsurface in European Cities and Urban Areas: A General Study proposal for Consideration in Planning Documents

Ignace Van Campenhout & Miguel Pazos Otón & Ruben C. Lois González

Abstract: The need to include the subsurface in urban studies and planning is no longer questioned. In recent years research and projects addressing this issue have proliferated, culminating in the preparation of the COST TU1206 Suburban action, which sets as a target introducing suburban spaces into the day-to-day management of Europe’s cities. In order for this objective to be realised it is necessary to strengthen collaboration between, on the one hand, geological institutes and universities and, on the other, urban planners and decision-makers; and, of course, formulating a full theoretical agenda that will enable the latest developments in subsoil models and mapping to be put to good use in local urban-planning departments and by private urban-development actors. Theoretical analysis is such that it insists on considering the subsurface as a factor with its own specific attributes, such as watercourses, the original rock composition and its degree of artificialisation, or chemical disturbance processes brought about by intensive human action on the land. Yet, at the same time, the underground space also affected by the impact of the growth of cities, as expressed in the building of infrastructure or the direct occupation of sites near the surface for housing, parking and shopping. Also of relevance is the presence of abundant archaeological remains or merely waste found at different levels. All these factors are studied in this paper, which has been prepared by taking a dual geological and geographical approach, between which dialogue is so clearly needed with regard to these issues.

Keywords: Urban Subsurface. Urban Planning. Europe. Cities. Urban Areas.


Planning the City of Tomorrow: Bridging the Gap between Planners and Subsurface Specialists

Petra van der Lugt & Gillian Dick & Ingelöv Eriksson & Johannes de Beer

Abstract: This paper addresses the process towards integration of subsurface knowledge in urban planning of three cities participating in COST Action TU1206 Sub-urban; Rotterdam, Glasgow and Oslo. The cities have unique challenges to manage conflicts and opportunities in the subsurface in the planning process. The Action has enabled a unique interaction between subsurface specialists and urban planners, thereby contributing to transform the relationship between experts who develop subsurface knowledge, and those who can benefit most from it – urban planners and decision makers. Common challenges are improving planning policies, enhancing the level of awareness of the subsurface in city development and modification of legislation to include the subsurface. Benchmark analyses were carried out among the 3 cities as each is aiming for adapting its urban planning practice and legislation. In our opinion, there are 2 main routes to raise awareness that lead to improved understanding and use of subsurface information in urban planning processes. These are development of a subsurface policy and providing subsurface information. They should lead to enable subsurface knowledge to be widely disseminated in order to manage risks and opportunities, and maximise the economic, social and environmental benefits of the urban subsurface and its services on which cities depend.

Keywords: Urban Subsurface. Urban Planning. Rotterdam. Glasgow. Oslo.


Subsurface Data and Knowledge for the Cities of Tomorrow: Glasgow Lessons Learnt and their Applicability Elsewhere

Diarmad Campbell & Helen Bonsor & David Lawrence & Alison Monaghan & Katie Whitbread & Tim Kearsey & Andrew Finlayson & David Entwisle & Andrew Kingdon & Stephanie Bricker & Fiona Fordyce & Hugh Barron & Gillian Dick & David Hay

Abstract: Knowledge of the subsurface is vital in planning and delivering successful construction and regeneration projects. To address this, and other urban subsurface issues in the Glasgow area (e.g. planning, flooding, contamination), the British Geological Survey’s (BGS) Clyde-Urban SuperProject (CUSP) has developed 3D and 4D subsurface models and other geoscience datasets (geochemistry, groundwater, engineering geology). The models based on data from tens of thousands of boreholes and other sources, provide new insights into: Glasgow’s complex geology; impacts of its industrial legacy; and opportunities for harnessing heat from abandoned mine workings. To make the CUSP models, and data, more accessible, BGS and Glasgow City Council, a key partner, have established ASK (Accessing Subsurface Knowledge), a data and knowledge exchange network involving public and private sector partners. ASK promotes digital free flow of subsurface data and knowledge between its partners. Lessons learnt in Glasgow are being shared through a European COST Action (Sub-Urban) focussed on sustainable urban subsurface use, and transforming relationships between those who develop urban subsurface knowledge and those who can benefit most from it; the planners and developers of the cities of tomorrow.

Keywords: Urban Subsurface. Cities. Glasgow. United Kingdom.