The Novi Sad territory has been inhabited by humans since the Stone Age (about 4500 BC). A settlement was located on the right bank of the river Danube in the territory of present-day Petrovaradin. In antiquity, the region was inhabited by Illyrian, Thracian and Celtic tribes, especially by the Scordisci. Celts were present in the area already in the 4th century BC and founded the first fortress on the right bank of the Danube. Later, in the 1st century BC, the region was conquered by the Romans. During Roman rule, a larger fortress was built in the 1st century (Cusum) and was included in the Roman province of Pannonia.

In the 5th century, Cusum was devastated by the invasion of the Huns. By the end of the 5th century, Byzantines had reconstructed the town and called it by the names Petrikon or Petrikov, after St. Peter. In the Middle Ages, the area was subsequently controlled by the Ostrogoths, Gepids, Avars, Franks, Great Moravia, Bulgaria, again by Byzantines, and finally by the Hungarians. It was included into the medieval Kingdom of Hungary between the 11th and 12th century. Hungarians then began to settle in the area, which was previously populated mostly by Slavs, and the place was mentioned for the first time under the Hungarian variant Peturwarad or Pétervárad (Serbian: Petrovaradin), which derived from the Byzantine variant, in documents from 1237. In the same year, the existence of several other settlements were mentioned to exist in the territory of modern urban area of Novi Sad.

Read more about Novi Sad City in case study report TU1206-WG1-010